For members


TEST: Is your level of French good enough for citizenship and residency?

France has tightened up language requirements for citizenship and is proposing introducing a language test for certain types of carte de séjour residency card - so just how good does your French need to be?

TEST: Is your level of French good enough for citizenship and residency?
Photo by Fred TANNEAU / AFP

From total fluency to just being able to order a baguette in your local boulangerie, there’s a world of difference in the levels of French attained by foreigners in France, and of course most people improve the longer they stay here.

But there are certain processes that require formal qualifications, so we’ve put together some sample questions to give you an idea of the level required. This article relates solely to your language ability – if you’re applying for citizenship there are several other requirements, including having to demonstrate knowledge of French culture and history.

READ ALSO Am I eligible for French citizenship?

The current rules in place require French at level B1 on the international DELF scale in order to obtain French citizenship.

Getting a carte de séjour residency permit currently has no formal language requirement, although Interior Minister Gérald Darmanin says he wants to introduce one for certain types of permit.

This bill still needs to be debated in parliament, but the level proposed is A1 – you can find full details of the proposal and take the A1 mock test HERE.


So what does B1 mean? B1 on the DELF scale is defined as “able to handle day-to-day matters that arise in school, work or leisure”. 

A B1 candidate “should be able to get by while travelling in an area where only French is spoken, and should be able to describe events and justify things like opinions, plans, or even ambitions”.

You are not required to be able to speak perfect, error-free French, only to be able to make yourself understood and understand any replies you are given.  


Four tests are required for citizenship; a written test, reading tests, listening test and an oral test where you have a conversation with an examiner.

  • Oral comprehension – 25 minutes. This test involves listening to a tape and answering questions about the content, usually multiple choice answers
  • Oral discussion – 15 minutes. This is a one-on-one conversation with an examiner (either in person or on the phone) who asks you progressively more difficult questions, towards the end of the chat you are also given the opportunity to ask questions or start a debate with your examiner on the topic
  • Reading test – 45 minutes. Candidates are expected to read a selection of French texts (newspaper articles, memos, adverts etc) and answer questions about their content
  • Writing test – 30 minutes. Candidates must write a piece on a given topic in a specified style (formal letter, email, memo, news report etc)

Bear in mind that instructions for the exam – times allowed, which sections to answer etc – are all in French. 

You need to pass all four sections of the language test in order to apply for citizenship. Although you do not have to take all the tests at the same time, test certificates presented for citizenship cannot be more than two years old. 

Sample questions

We have put together some examples of the type of questions asked, based on past papers for B1 exams.

Oral comprehension – for this section you will have to listen to audio of French people talking. The format varies, sometimes it could be a news report, an interview or a recorded discussion, and it will be played at least twice.

Here are some sample questions from a past B1 paper, after the candidates had listened to a short clip of Paul talking about his holidays – click here to listen to the audio. 

Quel a été le principal inconvénient du voyage de Paul ?

  • La nourriture
  • La chaleur 
  • La longueur du voyage

Combien de pays ont-ils visités ?

  • Cinq
  • Six
  • Seize

Quel sentiment éprouve Paul?

  • Il est déçu de son voyage et content d’être rentré 
  • Il est content de son voyage et regrette d’être rentré 
  • Il est content de son voyage et content aussi d’être rentré

Reading – you have 45 minutes to read two documents provided and then answer questions about them. The questions are usually a mix of multiple choice and longer answers.

Here are some sample questions from a past B1 paper, relating to a report about child soldiers, and the charity groups attempting to help them – you can read the document here.

1. Ce document a pour but de:

  • Dénoncer les horreurs de la guerre
  • Informer sur les actions pour les droits de l’enfant
  • Faire signer un texte pour les droits de l’enfant

2. Citez trois formes du soutien proposées aux enfants soldats par les ONG

3. Combien d’enfants sont membres du SPLA.

Oral discussion – the examiner will ask you questions about the documents that you have read for the reading section, you have an extra 10 minutes before the oral section begins to prepare your response.

You will begin by introducing yourself and talking about your work, family or hobbies – the examiner will then ask you some questions about yourself before moving on to questions about the document.

Written – in this section you have 30 minutes to write an answer to a question. You must respond in 160 to 180 words. Here is a sample of the type of question asked:

A votre avis, quels ont été le ou les changements les plus importants des vingt dernières années dans votre pays?

(In your opinion, what are the most important changes that have taken place in your country in the past 20 years).

You can find the full exam paper with the correct answers (at the bottom) HERE.

Member comments

  1. Does this apply to EU Nationals wishing to reside in France? And, by extension, to their spouse? Or are they exempt because of EU rules?

  2. Your mistakes (not a good idea when you write about French tests)

    La longUeur (the length) du voyage

    Il (he) (non non no It) est déçu (accent is a must é)

    les changements leS (plural here) plus importants

    votre payS your country. Your pay (English)

  3. Your mistakes. La longUeur (the length) du voyage

    Il (he) (non non no It) est déçu

    les changements leS (plural here)

    votre payS your country. Your pay (English)

  4. My French is at best b2 and at times a1. However, towards the end of the conversation with Paul, first vocal exercise, he makes reference to “Quebequoise” when he talks about being out of touch with current events. But the transcript version says “française”. Did I miss something?

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For members


Reader question: What do the French call a ‘French kiss’?

In English if you want to describe a passionate kiss, you invoke the French. But in French it is not 'une bise française'.

Reader question: What do the French call a 'French kiss'?

Question: If a passionate kiss with tongues is a ‘French kiss’ in English, what do the French call it? An English kiss?

Unbelievably for the nation that apparently personifies the passionate kiss (linguistically speaking, at least), for many years the French language had no specific word for a ‘French kiss’ – people would use embrasser to describe all types of kiss, with the context suggesting whether that was a kiss on the cheek for your granny or a passionate snog with a lover.

There were also some slang words for a sexy kiss.

‘French kiss’ is an Americanism which has been around since at least the 1920s, and may date to the 19th century.

Older English words for a passionate kiss including snogging, pashing and making out.

For many years the French have understood and used the term ‘French kiss’ – and plenty still do – but it has never been popular with French language purists.

It wasn’t until 2014 that the French dictionary Le Robert included a French verb that means to ‘kiss with tongues’.

This is galocher – pronounced ga – losh – ay.

This wasn’t a new verb in 2014, in fact the word itself is very old, but the secondary definition of kissing was new.

It comes from “galoche” – an overshoe with a leather upper and a wooden sole that is worn over slippers or shoes to protect them – it’s where the English word ‘galoshes’ comes from.

From that, there’s the verb galocher which means to walk around noisily in galoshes, and which now has – thanks in part to its addition to Le Robert dictionary – its second, more intimate meaning.

The link between shoe and kiss is not immediately apparent, and we’re carefully ignoring possible noise-related suggestions, but a phrase rouler des galoches may help. The verb rouler – to roll – which, according to Les 1001 expressions préférées des Français, describes the movement of the tongue during a sensual kiss. 

The verb is galocher and a French kiss is feminine – une galoche.

Use it like this

Elle s’est fait galocher par un prince charmant – she was passionately kissed by a prince charming

Love Island France: Gabriel galoche Camille… sous les yeux d’Anna – Love Island France: Gabriel French kisses Camille . . . right in front of Anna