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France v Spain: which is the better place to move to?

Trying to decide to if you want to move to France or Spain? Want to know which country is better for taxes, which one has a cheaper cost of living and which offers more diverse culture and landscapes? Here's everything you need to know.

France v Spain: which is the better place to move to?
Barcelona or Paris? Spain or France? Which country has the most to offer to new arrivals?" Photos:  Kristina Spisakova/Pixabay, Christophe ARCHAMBAULT / AFP

Ultimately the decision of whether you move to France or Spain will come down to personal preferences – the areas you like, the language you want to learn and the types of cuisine you want to enjoy, but there are several factors that can make living somewhere more difficult than others, such as taxes, visas and cost of living.


France has a long-standing and justified reputation as a high-tax country – in 2021, it had the second highest top statutory personal income tax rate among European OECD countries, after Denmark (55.9 percent), France (55.4 percent), and ahead of Austria (55 percent).

It’s almost impossible to compare and contrast tax systems between the two countries – and much depends on personal circumstances as to how much an individual or household pays in taxes and social charges.

Like many nations, it has a progressive tax banding system, which are as follows:

French income tax bands

Up to €10,225





French tax rate






Self-employed workers under the micro-entrepreneur scheme benefit from a tax status that simplifies tax and accounting requirements. For income taxes, you’ll file under the standard personal progressive rates.

Like France, Spain has a progressive tax system. The rates for 2022 are as follows:

Spanish income tax bands Spanish tax rate
€12,450–€20,200 24%
€20,200–€35,200 30%
€35,200–€60,000 37%
 €60,000–€300,000 45%
over €300,000 47%

France may have the second-highest top statutory personal income tax rate among European OECD, but low to mid earners pay significantly less income tax in France than in Spain. 

When it comes to being self-employed, Spain is unfortunately not a great country to choose regarding taxes. Autónomos (self-employed) pay the highest monthly social security fees in the EU. Currently, this is paid as a flat monthly fee of €294 per month, no matter what your earnings are. Taxes are then paid on top of this monthly fee. 

If the new proposed changes come into force in 2023, self-employed workers could end up paying double the amount of freelancers in France.

Golden visa

France doesn’t offer a ‘golden visa’ per se, but it has a ‘passeport talent’ scheme for any non-French self-employed person planning to create a business or make an economic investment. 

Be aware, this scheme does not allow investors simply to stump up €300,000, or buy an apartment in Paris and expect to be handed a passeport talent. They must take an active role in the business in which they are investing.

READ ALSO: How France’s ‘talent visa’ programme works

Golden visas do exist in Spain, allowing you to essentially ‘buy’ Spanish residency by investing €500,000 in property. The Spanish golden visa is also a pathway to citizenship, enabling you to renew your residency status and apply for citizenship after 10 years. 

Spain also offers a residency visa for entrepreneurs and business activities, also known as the visado de emprendedor in Spanish. Entrepreneurial activity is considered as anything of innovative character with special economic interest for Spain. There are no minimum capital requirements or a minimum number of jobs that your business must create, however you must submit your business plan to be approved. 

READ ALSO – Pros and cons: What foreigners should be aware of before applying for Spain’s golden visa

You can buy a property in Spain to get a Golden Visa. Photo: Ralph (Ravi) Kayden / Unsplash

Digital Nomad Visas

France does not offer a visa option specific to digital nomads – professionals whose line of work allows them to engage in remote work and who are therefore not location-dependent – but long-stay options are available for those who do want to spend some in the country.

READ ALSO: Working remotely from France – what are the rules for foreigners?

In 2021, Spain announced that it would be introducing a digital nomad visa, as well as tax cuts for startups and investors, but has yet to finalise all the details. 

Spain currently also offers a non-lucrative visa (NLV) scheme, but as the name suggests you are not allowed to work on the NLV.  For 2022 you need to prove you have an income of €27,792 for the year to be eligible for this visa. 

READ ALSO – Tax cuts and visas: Spain’s new law for startups, investors and digital nomads

Cost of living

There are cheaper places to live than France, we have to say. Much, as always, depends on where you plan to stay – property is, as you’d expect, more expensive in the big cities, with the capital, Paris, particularly hard on your bank balance.

Outside the big urban areas, property prices, whether you want to buy or rent, fall away rapidly – but you can pay for a cheaper property with a reduction in amenities.

Eating out and grocery shopping can be pricey, depending on where you shop, but you might be pleasantly surprised by the cost of a reasonable midweek lunch, and there are always the regular markets to explore and lose yourself in.

READ ALSO Bikes, gig tickets and holidays: 7 things the French government might pay for


Paris is more expensive to live in than Madrid and Barcelona. Photo: Pete Linforth / Pixabay

Traditionally, Spain is seen as having a low cost of living compared to its western and northern European neighbours. But of course, it does completely depend on where you live within the country. 

According to expat price comparison website Expatistan the cost of living in Madrid is 48 percent less than in Paris. Monthly rent for 85 m2 (900 sqft) furnished accommodation in an average area costs €968 in Madrid and €2,289 in Paris. 

But if you compare the two countries’ second cities – Barcelona and Marseille – the cost of living is about the same. Generally speaking in Spain, the south and western parts of the country such as Andalusia, Murcia, Extremadura and Galicia are cheaper than Madrid and northern regions like Catalonia and the Basque Country. 

You can still get some incredible bargains in Spain when it comes to property, and both eating out (a three-course menú del día for €10) and clothes shopping a generally cheaper than in France too. 

Keep in mind though, wages in Spain are generally less than in France. In 2022, the average salary in Spain is €2,710 gross per month or €32,520 per year, while in France it’s €39,300 per year. 

Lifestyle and culture

For all the talk of snooty waiters and rude public officials, the French are generally laid-back and fairly welcoming. If you’re polite, they’ll be polite, too. Try a bit of French – it really is appreciated. Just be ready for a direct answer if you ask a direct question – and don’t expect them to act like your best friend straightaway. Politeness is one thing, bosom buddy status has to be earned.

Culturally, France is very diverse. As well as French, France has five ‘regional languages’, not counting those spoken in its overseas territories – Basque, Breton, Catalan, Corsican, and Occitan – and each region has its own cuisine, festivals, dances and traditions.

France boasts 49 UNESCO World Heritage Sites and has more historical and cultural centres than you can shake a stick at. The likes of Lyon, Toulouse, Nice, Marseille, Montpellier, Bordeaux, Strasbourg, Nantes, are known for their fine food and their impressive museums. 

The Spanish are generally said to be friendly, easy-going people who are fun-loving, passionate and very family orientated. You’ll notice this in the music and the way festivals are celebrated. Think Spain’s fiery Las Fallas festival, Catalonia’s human towers, the crazy Canary carnival and southern Spain’s Semana Santa parades. 

Like France, Spain is also very culturally diverse and also has five different regional languages – Castilian (Spanish), Catalan, Basque, Galician and Arranese. Each of Spain’s 17 regions has its own cuisine, festivals, dances and traditions which differ greatly from one to the other.

Spain equals France when it comes to UNESCO World Heritage Sites, also boasting 49. Paris may be one of the world’s most famous capitals, with more sights than you can visit in one trip, but Madrid and Barcelona can definitely hold their own when it comes to art museums and architecture. Valencia, Seville, Bilbao, San Sebastián, Málaga and Granada are also known for their great museums and cultural offerings too.


Granda’s Alhambra is one of Spain’s 49 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Photo: granagramers / Pixabay

Nature and landscapes

France – with its mountains, extinct volcanoes, plains, coastal areas (its coastline is nearly as long as Spain’s), dunes, lakes – is a nature-lover’s paradise whatever the season. It has 9 national parks and 58 regional ones, dotted all over the country.

It’s hugely popular with tourists all year round, with the Alps and Pyrenees must-go areas for winter sport lovers. Get the time of year right, and you can ski in the morning and swim in the sea in the afternoon…

Spain is also great for nature lovers, especially those who love hiking, cycling and water sports, and comprises diverse landscapes from soaring mountains and wide river estuaries to lunar-like deserts and one of Europe’s best coastlines. 

Home to 16 National Parks, as well as countless natural parks in each of its 17 regions, it offers many options for nature lovers to get out and explore. Like France, winter sports can be found throughout the Catalan and Aragonese Pyrenees and in the region of Granada skiing and sunbathing can be done on the same day too. 


France’s Camargue National Park is one of the most important wetlands in Europe. Photo: Christian Klein / Pixabay


Healthcare in France is widely reputed to be among the very best in the world – evidence of your tax euros at work. Once you’re registered with a doctor and on the social security system, care is routinely excellent, speedy and affordable – with almost all point-of-need costs covered by the State. 

Many people also take on top-up health insurance to cover additional expenses that do crop up – be aware glasses can be expensive, though the government has stepped in to ensure genuinely affordable eye care is available. And the system is smart and co-ordinated enough to ensure that any paperwork is kept to a minimum.

READ ALSO How to register for a carte vitale and why you need one

Spain is also said to have a great healthcare system. According to the World Health Organisation’s latest global report, Spain’s health system ranked number seven in the world. Those paying into the social security system, either via their employer or through being self-employed, have access to free healthcare and primary healthcare services are available within a 15-minute radius from where you live in most of the country.

Having said that, many Spaniards – 19 percent to be exact – opt for private healthcare. This is because it’s very affordable, sometimes a little as €15 per month. The advantages are that waiting times are dramatically reduced and you are able to see a specialist directly without having to be referred. 

READ ALSO: How to apply for a public health card in Spain


The French state-run high-speed rail service makes getting from place to place easy and relatively affordable, while in the big cities, public transport is generally good.

Get out of the towns though and you’re pretty much dependent on having a car. For driving longer distances the pay-as-you-go motorway system allows swift and, generally, easy travel.

Spain has a very efficient and affordable public transport system, which comprises highspeed rail networks run by RENFE, as well as regional rail networks and buses across the country. The regional rail networks are extensive and often serve small towns and villages, as well as larger cities. However, if you choose to live in a more rural area, then having your own car is best. 

Most highways in Spain are free to use, apart from a few which require you to pay a toll. In 2021 400km of motorways in Spain (mainly in Catalonia) became toll-free.


Spain has an excellent transport network. Photo: Antonio Garcia Prats / Pixabay


Speaking French helps in everyday interactions. Even if you have just a little basic French, use it – especially bonjour. The effort is appreciated, and you’ll find life becomes a whole lot easier. 

And it’s easy enough to find places to improve your language skills – your local mairie will probably have information. Even something as simple as listening to French radio or watching French TV shows helps. You’ll be surprised at how quickly you pick things up.

Speaking Spanish is almost essential if you move to Spain, apart from if you choose to live in one of the towns in southern Spain where Brits outnumber locals.

The Spanish are also not as good at speaking English as many of their European neighbours, so learning the local lingo will go a long way to helping you get by. 

READ ALSO: Spanish now ranked worst in EU at speaking English

But don’t worry, according to language-learning app Babbel Spanish is the third-easiest language to learn for English speakers, way above French which comes in at number eight on the list. Spanish is also the world’s fourth-most spoken language with over 500 million people speaking it worldwide. Conversely French comes in fifth place, but only has 282 million speakers. This means that your Spanish will help you not just in Spain, but when you travel too. 

The Spanish are also a lot more accepting of foreigners who try to speak their language, even if they get it wrong, and will rarely switch immediately to English, except in very touristy areas. They are encouraging and don’t mind if you make mistakes. 


Really can’t decide? The Basque country is predominantly in Spain but also covers parts of south west France, including Bayonne and Biarritz.

It has its own culture, traditions and food – including delicious spicy peppers – and the countryside is stunning.

Zorte on euskerarekin

*(good luck with learning the Basque language) 

Member comments

  1. Can one obtain a Carte Vitale if residing in France more than 3 months per year, but without establishing primary residence in France?

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For members


REVEALED: The problems foreigners have getting started in France

A recent international has ranked France among the 10 hardest countries for foreign citizens to settle in. But what makes getting started in France so difficult?

REVEALED: The problems foreigners have getting started in France

France is among the top 10 hardest countries to get set up in after first moving for foreigners, according to a recent survey by InterNations – a platform that connects foreign residents abroad.

The survey, called “Where expats struggle most to get settled”, used survey responses from people living abroad to rank countries based on how easy they are for dealing with administration, language, housing and digital life. 

Overall France was placed in 44th place out of 52 countries, fairing better than Italy (48th place) and Germany (52nd place), but well-behind other European countries like Norway (15th place), the Netherlands (25th) and Sweden (26th). 

Overall, the survey noted that administrative processes and language were the most difficult parts of setting up a life in France for foreigners.

Complex administration 

France ranked among the bottom 10 countries – in 43rd place – when it came to administrative topics. This subsection encompassed things from setting up a bank account upon arrival to the general ease of dealing with local administrative workers and residency permit renewal procedures.

More than half of the people in the InterNations survey (55 percent) said that is not easy to deal with the local authorities – higher than the global average of 39 percent.

About a third of respondents said that it was hard to open a local bank account. Readers of The Local have signalled this challenge as well – many struggle with the Catch-22 of being asked for a proof of your address to open an account, while on the other hand meeting many landlords who will not rent to you until you have a bank account.

The Local created a guide with vocabulary and relevant information for opening a bank account in France – you can find it HERE.

READ MORE: Everything you need to know about setting up a bank account in France

One British resident in France told InterNations, “What bothers me most is the bureaucracy, particularly the time it is taking to get full access to healthcare services. In general, France still has work to do to make such official processes easier and fully possible online”.

As for readers of The Local, several have echoed these types of complaints about French administrative procedures. 

In a 2021 survey by The Local on foreigners’ experiences living in Paris specifically, several mentioned bureaucracy as a challenge. One reader, Weronika Lasko referred to French admin as a “pure nightmare’ and others, like Pavan Puli, advised that for “any administrative assistance it takes a lot of time to get done”.

Nevertheless – readers of The Local had helpful advice for those just moving to the country. In a recent survey on applying for and renewing visas and residency permits, one respondent advised everyone to “Bring more paperwork than you think you need and don’t expect anything to make sense”. 

When giving The Local their ‘top tips for life in France’, several readers offered ways to make administrative processes less complex. One reader, Kerstin Hallert, said that it is “absolutely necessary to have a French-speaking friend not afraid to deal with bureaucracy endlessly.”

Despite the challenges many foreigners have experienced with French bureaucracy, several of France’s administrative procedures have been gradually moving online. In The Local’s survey about France’s visa procedures moving online, 78 percent of respondents said they had completed their most recent visa or residency procedure online (rather than in person).

Other tasks that may have been a challenge for foreigners a few years ago – like having to call to make a doctor’s appointment – have been simplified with the advent of websites, like Doctolib, which allow users to register for their healthcare appointments online.

More recently, the French government put forward a new website called “démarches simplifiées” which allegedly speeds up certain admin tasks by 50 percent. 

READ MORE: The website that speeds up French bureaucracy ‘by up to 50 percent’

From driver’s licences to submitting documents related to residency permits for foreigners, the new French website aims to streamline administrative procedures and make more processes that once required in-person, paper-heavy meetings available online.

France is also notorious for requiring large paper dossiers for different tasks in life, notably finding and renting an apartment. This is another process that has been put online – now you can use the tool Dossier Facile which allows you to upload all your house-hunting documents to a single site, have them checked and verified and then gives you a link to give to landlords and agencies, which makes the process a little simpler.

Language struggles

According to the survey by InterNations, 60 percent of respondents said that they find it “difficult to live in France without speaking the local language”, which is almost double the global average of 32 percent.

The survey did find that the vast majority of foreigners living in France speak French fairly or very well (72 percent), but may reported that they struggled to learn it. 

One Greek resident told InterNation that “French is REALLY difficult, even after all these years, and without it you are lost!” 

Readers of The Local have also found language barriers to be one of the most challenging aspects to life in France. For example in a previous survey respondents talked about the difficulty of understanding French people due to the speed they speak the language.

It’s also more important for foreigners in France to learn the language because unlike other countries like Switzerland or the Nordics where locals have a high level of English, France has traditionally ranked low in regard to English levels. The 2022 scores for the Education First English Language Proficiency test actually ranked France at the bottom of all EU countries on English levels. There are many reasons that might explain this ranking, ranging from the way English is taught in French schools to the fact France still tends to dub English language films rather than use subtitles.

READ MORE: Worst in the EU? Just how well (or badly) do the French speak English?

In France, English-levels vary greatly based on several factors, such as region – those that ranked “high” instead of moderate on the test, and the best score (in order) was Île-de-France (the Paris region) and the regions with the lowest English levels were Burgundy, Brittany, and Hauts-de-France.

And if you go up to anyone on the streets of France, hoping they speak a little English, the study also found that those aged 26 to 40 were most likely to score “high” instead of “moderate.”

On a positive note…

The InterNations survey did conclude with a positive message – France scored well in the “Digital Life” category.

According to the survey – France came in 24th place in this area.

“Around nine in ten expats rate the cashless payment options positively (89 percent vs. 84 percent globally) and agree they have unrestricted access to online services, such as social media (90 percent vs. 82 percent globally)”, the survey found.

This stacks up with the figures – in 2013, the French government launched a €20 billion plan to make sure that all households and businesses across the country had access to very high-speed broadband, and that goal was achieved. By the end of 2021, 99 percent of households and businesses had been equipped with it. 

More people also opt to pay using contactless options. According to a study by the group Panorabanques, 86 percent of French people in 2020 opted to use contactless payment with their bank cards – an increase of seven percentage points when compared with the year previous. 

France is also going digital in other aspects – with the goal of reducing waste and its carbon footprint, the French government plans to gradually phase out paper receipts. Customers will still be able to request them, once the new regulation is put into practice.

READ MORE: How France’s new anti-waste laws will affect you

Several local authorities have also begun to phase out paper transport tickets, while expanding options to buy rail passes with mobile phone applications and reusable cards.