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POLITICS

How likely is it that Sweden would ever legalise cannabis?

As Germany moves to legalise the sale of cannabis, The Local investigates if the same thing could ever happen in Sweden. 

a marijuana plant
Sweden has long taken a hard line on drugs. Photo: AP Photo/Richard Vogel

Cannabis is the most used drug in the European Union. The EU’s latest drug report estimates that around 78.5 million adults have used it at some point in their lives. 

But the recreational use of cannabis is only legal in a few EU countries. Malta became the first EU country to legalise the use and growth of cannabis for recreational purposes at the beginning of December.  

Now Germany’s new centre-left coalition government has agreed to the controlled sale of cannabis for recreational purposes in licensed shops. Personal cannabis use is already legal in Canada, Uruguay, and some parts of the US. Germany would be the largest nation in the world to make the move.

A study by the University of Düsseldorf found that legalising cannabis could bring Germany more than €4.7 billion in additional revenue. Some also argue that it could take power away from criminal gangs. Government regulation could better control the strength and availability of cannabis as well as preventing harmful substances like fentanyl from being added. 

While cannabis-use has been linked to schizophrenia, psychosis and memory loss, it has not been definitively linked to an overdose death. Studies have also found that it can reduce pain and chemotherapy-induced nausea.  

International laws oblige countries to impose criminal penalties for the supply of drugs for non-medical purposes. But last year, the UN reclassified cannabis to recognise its therapeutic uses. And now Italy, Switzerland, Luxembourg and The Netherlands (where, despite being associated with liberal drugs policies, supply is illegal but tolerated in some circumstances) are discussing the move toward increased legalisation. 

But will Sweden? 

One of the overarching goals of the Swedish drug strategy is a totally drug-free society. Sweden is where the first World Forum Against Drugs was arranged in 2008. Since 1988 it’s been a criminal offence not only to possess cannabis, but to use it too. 

“We have a long tradition of regarding cannabis as a dangerous drug. The authorities have exaggerated the risks for many years. It is not as dangerous as some say and not as safe as others say,” Bengt Svensson, professor emeritus in social work at Malmö University, told The Local.

The Swedish model doesn’t differentiate between “hard” or “soft” drugs. Cannabis and heroin are both classified as narcotics. Sweden’s drug policy is based on the assumption that all non-medical use of narcotics is abuse. The government only recently allowed the use of medicinal cannabis in special circumstances. 

The state has long held that this punitive approach is responsible for Sweden’s historically low levels of drug use. While 28 percent of adults in Germany have reported using cannabis at some point in their lives, that number is just 17 percent in Sweden. 

But Sweden has the highest proportion of drug-related deaths in the EU. In 2019, 540 people died from an overdose in Sweden, most from opiates.  

While drug use is comparatively low in Sweden, it is increasing. The country is now further away from its goal of being “drug-free” than when the ban on drug use began. According to the Health Ministry, an estimated 29,500 people in Sweden are “problematic drug users”.

Street prices have declined in recent years (a gram of cannabis now costs about €11) and the strength and availability of drugs has increased. Sweden conducts thousands of drug seizures a year, but the vast majority of drug convictions are for possession or use.

As drug use and deaths continue to increase, the Public Health Authority has called for an inquiry into Sweden’s ban on drug use, arguing that they do not know enough about the effects of the legislation. But the government has said no

Health Minister Lena Hallengren has said that she would like to see more effective substance abuse care but does not want to investigate decriminalisation. On SVT’s news programme Aktuellt she said: “I do not want to tell a whole generation of young people that it is OK to use drugs.” 

Earlier this year, three youth branches of Swedish centre-right parties asked the government to consider decriminalising cannabis, encouraging an inquiry into the consequences of the ban. There have been opinion pieces in newspapers calling for decriminalisation, and the government has announced a greater focus on drug policy.

But cannabis reform is far from the top of the political agenda.

“Sweden will be among the last countries in Europe to legalise cannabis. Maybe it’ll happen in 20 or 30 years,” Svensson said. “Legalisation is against everything Sweden has stood for over many years.” 

Svensson thinks decriminalisation will only happen if Sweden’s Nordic neighbours go through with it first. The government and its authorities will then want to evaluate what happens.

So the short answer is no: Sweden won’t be legalising or even decriminalising the use of cannabis any time soon. 

“It’s a long way to go,” said Svensson.

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SWEDEN ELECTS

Sweden Elects: I’ve got election pork coming out my ears this week

The Local's editor Emma Löfgren rounds up this week's key talking points of the Swedish election campaign.

Sweden Elects: I've got election pork coming out my ears this week

There’s an old Swedish Word of the Day in The Local’s archives: valfläsk (literally “election pork”, or pork barrel politics).

This week, there’s been enough of it to feed a Swedish town large enough for both a Biltema and a Dressmann store and still have half the pig left!

You could say it started the week before last, when the Social Democrats’ Immigration Minister Anders Ygeman floated a test balloon loaded with a 50-percent cap on non-Nordic residents in troubled neighbourhoods (it went down among the other parties like it was made out of lead).

Then last week, the Liberals threw their hat in the ring by proposing mandatory language assessments for two-year-olds who don’t attend preschool, and then make preschool mandatory for the toddlers whose Swedish isn’t deemed good enough. This, they said, was meant to help integration in areas where bilingual children don’t speak Swedish at home.

“Studies show that early preschool benefits children whose mothers are low-educated and whose parents are born abroad,” their manifesto read.

Liberal leader Johan Pehrson’s statement that in the most extreme cases – where parents clearly refuse to let their children learn Swedish – led to a social media storm that conjured up images of crying toddlers being taken into care for failing to distinguish between en and ett when quizzed.

For any parents of multilingual children (who know better than most how language works in early childhood – I’m raising a multilingual baby myself, but I’ve only just started so if you have any tips, do let me know!), I should stress that the proposal is less extreme than how it was first presented.

This is typical for valfläsk, by the way. Take something that’s perfectly obvious and hard to argue against (of course mixed neighbourhoods and children being encouraged to learn languages are generally good things) but dial it up a notch, insert something immigration-related, promise to get tough on whatever it is you want to get tough on, and propose either something that already exists or would be near-impossible to implement.

Then the Stockholm branch of the conservative Moderates proposed that entire school classes in vulnerable areas should be screened for ADHD through optional rapid tests, in order to increase the comparably lower rate of medication among foreign-born children and prevent them from falling into a life of crime.

“Detached from reality,” said their Social Democrat rival and pointed out that the partly Moderate-run region was planning to cut the number of psychiatric care clinics for young people.

The Christian Democrats, never ones to be outdone, wanted to chemically castrate sex offenders, give police access to healthcare biobanks, and let police take DNA samples from people stopped in internal border checks.

But while many of the election pledges that get tossed around this close to the election (less than a month to go, now!) tend to range from the radical to the ridiculous and are unlikely to ever be implemented, they’re still worth paying attention to. They give us an indication of the direction the parties want to take, and could well reappear in a more watered-down format later on during the governmental cycle.

They may also become part of post-election negotiations, where even small parties hold key cards as the larger parties fight to cobble together viable government coalitions.

They also say something about Sweden and the direction of the political sphere as a whole, where the parties are currently racing to outdo each other on who can be toughest on immigration and law and order.

The Local’s reporter Becky Waterton has gone through all the parties’ election pledges to see how they specifically would affect foreign residents in Sweden – in case you’ve missed her article, click here to read it.

Also in the world of Swedish politics, a new poll by SVT and Novus has the Moderates and the Sweden Democrats neck and neck, Moderate leader Ulf Kristersson promised lower taxes in his summer speech and Prime Minister Magdalena Andersson tougher sentences on gang criminals in hers, and Sweden Democrat leader Jimmie Åkesson suggested changing the name of the Swedish Prison and Probation Service (Kriminalvården) to the Penal Office (Straffverket).

Sweden Elects is a new weekly column by Editor Emma Löfgren looking at the big talking points and issues in the Swedish election race. Members of The Local Sweden can sign up to receive the column plus several extra features as a newsletter in their email inbox each week. Just click on this “newsletters” option or visit the menu bar.

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