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LIVING IN AUSTRIA

11 maps that help you understand Austria today

Despite its relatively small size, Austria is rich with history and culture - which is highlighted by the following maps.

11 maps that help you understand Austria today
Austria and the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Von AlphaCentauri - Eigenes Werk, CC BY-SA 3.0 Creative Commons

Austria’s central location and its historical influence has made for a fascinating history. 

As can be seen with the above map, the current Austrian borders have only come into effect comparatively recently, after the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. 

From population density to Nazi occupation – and of course the inevitable comparisons with Australia – these maps shed a little bit of light on historical and modern Austria. 

Where do you come from?

Austria’s strong economy and central location mean its an attractive location for foreigners. 

Between 20 and 25 percent of Austrian residents were born in another country. This includes people who have acquired Austrian citizenship. 

Around half of those who live in Austria but were born elsewhere come from EU countries. 

READ MORE: Where do Austria’s foreign residents come from and where do they live?

The following map – based on official government statistics but put together by Austrian Maps – shows where people living in Austria were born, including those who were born in Austria itself. 

Image: Wikicommons/Austrian Maps

View the official tweet here. 

Austria’s ethno-linguistic composition a century ago 

While modern borders have largely set ethnic and linguistic boundaries in Central Europe in stone, the following map shows just how different this was in 1910. 

Ethnic and linguistic Germans can be seen spread all across the regions, concentrated of course around Austria, although there are pockets as far away as Transylvania (modern Romania). 

The map, which has been put together under a Wikicommons licence, comes from research by William R Shepherd, who published his book Distribution of Races in Austria-Hungary in 1911. 

Image: Wikicommons/William R Shepherd

Austria under Nazi rule, under the Allies and in the present day

After Austria’s Adolf Hitler rose to rose to the position of German Chancellor in 1933, he set his sights on reunifying Austria with Germany, known as the Anschluss (Annexation). 

Under Nazi rule, Austria’s German name – Österreich, which means eastern realm – was replaced by Ostmark, which sought to highlight the eastern march of the Third Reich towards its inevitable victory. 

The following map shows Ostmark in 1941, including the seven Reichsgaue, i.e. states. 

These were: Carinthia, Lower Danube, Salzburg, Styria, Upper Danube, Tyrol and Vienna.

Austria as ‘Ostmark’, as it was known under the Nazis. Image: Wikicommons/

This map shows how Austria was divided by the conquering Allied powers: the United States, France, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. 

As had been done in neighbouring Germany, Vienna itself was also divided between the four conquering powers. 

Image: Master UeglyAustria/Wikicommons

Finally, these are the current state borders for Austria.

As can be seen in comparison to the above map, the state borders are largely similar to the occupied Allied zones, other than the eastern part of Tyrol. 

Austria’s nine states. Image: Wikicommons

Changing lanes: When did each Austrian state switch from left to right-sided traffic? 

Fortunately for tourists and Austrians alike, the entire country of Austria – including each and every one of its nine states – drives on the right hand side. 

It might surprise you to learn however that this was not the case as recently as 100 years ago. 

The Austro-Hungarian Empire drove on the left-hand side, largely in resistance to Napoleon and his army, notes the British Motor Museum.

When Napoleon moved through Europe, the countries he conquered became right-hand drive. Those countries which were proudly unconquered, drove on the left to thumb their nose at Bonaparte and his forces. 

As a consequence, half of Austria – the half which had been invaded by Napoleon – drove on the right, while the other half drove on the left. 

After the Austro-Hungarian empire dissolved, gradually different states converted to right-hand drive, although this took place over a relatively long period – although of course regular commuting from one state to the other was comparatively rare at the time. 

As can be seen in the following map, Vorarlberg made the switch in 1921, but it was not until 1938 – when Austria was invaded by Germany – when Vienna finally made the switch. 

When Austria swapped from left-hand drive to the right. Image: Tubs/Austrian Maps/Wikicommons

Population density 

For a relatively small country, Austria has dense urban and rural areas – and pretty much everything in between. 

The following map, put together by Yale academic Michael Gastner, shows the population density of each Austrian state. 

Perhaps unsurprisingly, Vienna has the highest population density, followed by Upper Austria and Vorarlberg. 

Tyrol and Carinthia are on the other side of the equation. 

Image: Michael Gastner

Austria compared to Australia

Austria is frequently compared to Australia. 

These comparisons are due pretty much to how similar the country’s names are, with the countries not similar in most other ways. 

One example is size. The following map has Austria superimposed onto Australia – which a) shows just how different the countries are in size and b) otherwise serves very little purpose at all. 

Image: Google Maps

Innsbruck and Outsbruck

And then there are some maps which are just plain silly. 

The following map, courtesy of Twitter page Austrian Maps, provides a handy perspective on which parts of Austria are Innsbruck – and which parts are not. 

Image: Austrian Maps

For anyone wandering through the wild ravines or urban landscapes of Austria, keep this map in mind whenever you need to know if you’re in with the Innsbruck crowd – or not. 

Austria is the true centre of Europe

Throughout its history, Austria has represented the centre of Europe when it comes to things like culture, language, wealth, power and influence. 

The following map however shows that Austria also sits at the geographic centre of Europe, with the country placed along the axis of proximity between Istanbul and London.

In fact Vienna – which considers itself the centre of Austria despite being up towards the top corner – is almost split by proximity between the two metropoles of European culture and history. 

Image: Austrian Maps

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LIVING IN AUSTRIA

Which Austrian states offer free public kindergartens?

Salzburg has joined the list of states to offer free public kindergarten care to children aged between three and six years old. Where else can parents expect aid with childcare in Austria?

Which Austrian states offer free public kindergartens?

This week, Salzburg’s state government announced that it had reached a deal offer free part-time kindergarten care for children aged from three to six years old. The government has set aside €13 million to fund the care. 

The new offer will be introduced on April 1st, according to an ORF broadcast.

Wolfgang Mayer, chairman of the Austrian People’s Party (ÖVP), said: “We are noticeably relieving Salzburg’s families and setting a milestone in childcare. Overall, a very good day for Salzburg’s families .”

Even though every party supported the decision, there was some criticism that it was “not enough”. For the liberal NEOS, for example, free half-day care is just a first step, Salzburg24 reported. The party continues to push for all-day care. Centre-left SPÖ also said there is still a need to offer free childcare options for children younger than three. 

READ ALSO: How does the cost of childcare in Austria compare to other countries?

How do other states stack up when it comes to childcare?

By federal law, part-time daycare is free of charge for children from the age of five throughout Austria. However, other provinces have different offers:

  • Burgenland: all-day care free of charge care for children up to age six
  • Lower Austria: part-time daycare free of charge for children between 2.5 and six
  • Upper Austria: part-time daycare free of charge for children between 2.5 and six
  • Tyrol: part-time daycare free of charge for children between four and six
  • Vienna: all-day care free of charge for children up to six

Salzburg now joins the list of provinces which have expanded the minimum federal requirements. Carinthia, Styria and Vorarlberg still only have part-time daycare free for 5-year-olds. From age 6, children in Austria then join compulsory schooling. 

In general, childcare in Austria is seen positively, especially by foreigners. A The Local poll from October 2022 found that 50 percent of readers surveyed described it as “good”, followed by 25 percent who said childcare in Austria was “very good”.

Shyam from India described childcare in Austria as “very good” before adding: “My country doesn’t have any support for childcare.”

Similarly, Marie in Klosterneuburg, but from the US, described it as “amazing”.

READ ALSO: ‘Better and cheaper’: What foreigners really think about childcare in Austria

How does the childcare system work?

In Austria, there are different types of care available before children reach mandatory school age, including nurseries for those under the age of three, kindergartens up to the age of six and workplace and university childcare centres.

In many parts of Austria, childcare for babies and toddlers up to the age of three takes place at day nurseries (Kinderkrippen), but there are other options, including Tagesmutterväter, where children are cared for in smaller groups. Later, they go to kindergartens before joining schools and moving on with their mandatory schooling.

Facilities are run privately or funded by the government, and the costs can vary. The family’s income and the number of childcare hours are considered when calculating fees.

Parents usually have to register for places in advance and some offers are very on demand. The location of the family is taken into account for spots in public schools. 

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