The Danish Prosecution Service said the man, who has been in detention since early July, would be tried at a date to be determined, likely behind closed doors.
“The accused… is suspected of having provided information on, among other things, Danish energy technologies for a Russian intelligence service for payment,” the Prosecution Service said in a statement.
Russia's embassy in Denmark said it expected the accused to be cleared of the charges.
“The Russian embassy considers the arrest of our compatriot and charges against him as a mistake and counts on the impartial approach of the Danish justice to this case,” the embassy said in a statement.
Under Danish law, the accused, whose age and occupation have not been revealed, faces up to six years in prison.
The Prosecution Service added that it will also seek to have the man expelled from the country.