‘We could go bankrupt’ – What’s at stake for French fishermen in the Brexit fishing spat

In the dead of night, a French trawler cuts through the Channel's pitch-black waters on a hunt for cuttlefish that takes captain Pierre Lepretre and his crew across British lines.

'We could go bankrupt' - What's at stake for French fishermen in the Brexit fishing spat
French fisherman Pierre Lepretre worries for his future. Photo: AFP

For decades French fishermen have cast a wide net across the strait that acts as a natural border between Britain and France.

But as the clock ticks down to December 31st, when Britain's divorce from the EU becomes complete, they fear that London's promise to “take back control” of its territorial waters could leave them high and dry.

For Lepretre, whose UK catch makes up 70-80 percent of his income, being barred from British fishing grounds would spell ruin.

READ ALSO OPINION Why French fishermen should be allowed to fish in UK waters after Brexit


“If we can no longer go to the English side we'll go bankrupt,” the fisherman  said as he counted his morning's catch: 90 kilos of cuttlefish, 15 kilos of squid and 20 kilos each of red snapper and mackerel.

His boat is based in Boulogne-sur-Mer, about 40 minutes from the maritime border.

Grievances over fishing rights were one of the driving forces in the 2016 Brexit campaign, with British fishermen complaining of EU neighbours with more generous quotas plundering the country's stocks.

Within hours of Britain leaving the EU on January 31st this year, French fishermen found themselves barred from waters around the British Channel island of Guernsey – a spat that lasted a week.

With Britain and the EU both playing hardball over the terms of a wider trade agreement, there are fears of further standoffs.

In a leaked report last year, the British government anticipated that barring EU vessels could lead to “clashes between vessels”, “violent disputes” or even the “blockading of ports”.

To try and create goodwill, fishermen from Boulogne-sur-Mer have set up Whatsapp groups to liaise with their British counterparts on issues such as the location of British lobster pots that French trawlers should give a wide berth.

“It works well on the whole,” Lepretre said.

Fisheries have been a flashpoint in trade talks between the EU and Britain, with chief EU negotiator Michel Barnier identifying it as one of the EU's top two priorities.

The EU wants any future deal with Britain to uphold the bloc's common fisheries policy, which shared out catch quotas based on 1970s trends.

Britain, which has vowed to become an “independent coastal state”, has pushed for annual negotiations on quotas that would significantly increase Britain's share.

But in a sign that London might be prepared to soften its position, the Guardian newspaper reported last week that Britain had offered a three-year transition period for European fishing fleets.

For Lepretre, as for many other fishermen in France where fish and seafood caught in British waters make up 30 percent of sales, the stakes are high.

His gleaming 19-metre trawler, which he ordered just two weeks before Britain voted to leave the EU, set him and his uncle back nearly a million euros, most of it borrowed.

“If I had known, I would never have signed (the purchase order),” said the seaman, who comes from a family that has been fishing in the Channel for three generations.

He worries that if EU fishermen are frozen out of British waters they will all fall back on France “and there will be big problems cohabiting”.    

The French take a particularly dim view of Dutch supertrawlers that were grist to the mill of pro-Brexit groups such as Fishing for Leave.

In the event of a no-deal Brexit, Pierre's uncle Olivier Lepretre, director of the fishing committee of the northern Hauts-de-France region, believes there is only one solution.

France, Belgium, Spain and other coastal countries “should all take back control of their waters until new agreements are negotiated”. 

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Is new court ruling the end for Britons fighting to remain EU citizens?

The Court of Justice of the European Union confirmed on Thursday that Brexit really does mean that Britons are no longer EU citizens. Claudia Delpero looks at whether there's any other way they can keep their rights.

Is new court ruling the end for Britons fighting to remain EU citizens?

The Court of Justice of the European Union confirmed on Thursday that Britons lost EU citizenship when the UK left the EU, on 1st February 2020. 

It is the first time the EU’s top court has rules on the matter, after a number of legal cases challenged this specific Brexit outcome. The decision also sets a precedent should other countries decide to leave the bloc in the future. 

What has the EU Court decided?

The Court of Justice decided on a case brought by a British woman living in France.

Before Brexit, she could vote and stand as a candidate in her town of residence, Thoux. But after the UK withdrawal from the EU, she was removed from the electoral roll and excluded from the municipal elections that took place in March 2020, during the transition period.  

As the mayor refused her appeal to restore the registration, she took the case to the regional court in Auch, which agreed to request an interpretation of the rules to the EU top court. 

Julien Fouchet, the barrister supporting her and several other cases on the EU citizenship of British nationals, argued that the loss of EU citizenship and voting rights was disproportionate. It would also be contrary to the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, given that the woman also lost her voting rights in the UK, having lived abroad for more than 15 years.

Alice Bouillez, who has lived in France since 1984 and is married to a French national, could have applied for French citizenship, but did not do so because she said “this was not necessary” before Brexit and, as a former UK official, she had taken an oath of allegiance to the Queen.

On Thursday the Court of Justice announced the decision about her case. The court ruled that the “possession of the nationality of a member state is an essential condition for a person to be able to acquire and retain the status of citizen of the Union and to benefit fully from the rights attaching to that status.”

The court therefore confirmed that British nationals automatically lost their EU citizenship as a result of Brexit and, as a consequence, Britons also lost their voting and electoral rights in municipal elections in the EU (unless the country where they live set different rules). 

What is EU citizenship?

EU citizenship was introduced by the Treaty of Maastricht of 1992, when borders were opening and the bloc was integrating economically after the end of the Cold War. 

Under the treaty, every person holding the nationality of an EU member state is a citizen of the Union. EU citizenship is additional and does not replace nationality, the treaty specifies. But this creates the first form of a transnational citizenship that grants rights across borders.

EU citizens have the right to access each other’s territory, job market and services under the principle of non-discrimination. If they are economically active, they have the right to reside in other EU states and be joined by family members, access healthcare at the same conditions of nationals (for emergency treatment also when travelling temporarily), obtain social security benefits and see their professional qualifications recognised.

Beyond free movement, at the core of EU citizenship there are also political rights, such as participating in the European Parliament election, voting and standing as candidates in municipal elections when living in other EU countries, receiving consular protection from other EU states outside the EU, and taking part in European Citizens’ Initiatives asking to the EU to legislate on certain matters. 

Which EU citizenship rights have Britons lost with Brexit? 

For British citizens who were living in the EU before Brexit, the Withdrawal Agreement protects some of these rights. Britons covered by deal have their residence, access to work and education, healthcare, social security and qualifications secured, but only in the country where they were living before Brexit.

But the right to free movement in other EU states, consular protection in third countries, and the political rights attached to EU citizenship were lost, the Court confirmed. 

For British citizens in the UK, the trade and cooperation agreement has preserved some social security rights and, in theory, the possibility to have professional qualifications recognized when moving to an EU country. These provisions however lack details and may take a long time before they work in practice. 

As the “European Union” no longer features on British passports, the possibility to access EU lanes at airports to skip passport control queues has also vanished. 

“The loss of those treasured rights has been clear to those of us living in the EU from the early days of Brexit. But for Brits in the UK, the realities of life outside the EU, and the consequences of Brexit, are only just dawning. Long queues at the borders, roaming charges, obstacles to working abroad, etc. are the new reality,” said Sue Wilson, Chair of the group Remain in Spain. 

While she said the court’s decision was “no real surprise,” she argued that “this is not the Brexit the public were promised, or that the majority voted for.”

Can British citizens get some of these rights back?

Julien Fouchet was disappointed at the Court decision and promised to continue the legal fight, bringing the case at the European Court of Human Rights (which is not an EU institution). 

Other two cases on the matter of EU citizenship for British nationals are still pending at the Court of Justice of the EU. One of them aims to determine whether EU citizenship is a “fundamental status” that cannot be removed but Thursday’s decision could have already provided the answer.

Another option to reconsider some of the rights is the renegotiation of EU-UK trade agreement, when it will be reviewed in 2025. 

Meanwhile, the EU is revising the rules for non-EU citizens living in EU countries on a long-term basis, making it easier to move across borders. 

Applying for citizenship is so far the only option to regain voting rights, although not all EU countries allow dual nationality. 

Sue Wilson, who has long campaigned for the UK to stay in the EU, said: “There is only one way to restore the loss of our rights, and that’s to rejoin the single market, rejoin the customs union, and eventually, rejoin the European Union… Until that day, we will continue to be second class citizens whose rights have been diminished for the sake of an ideology.”