No weapons were found and no one was injured in the incident on the high-speed Thalys train, said police in the port city of Rotterdam where the train stopped.
“In the train from Amsterdam to Paris, a 28-year-old man behaved aggressively this morning. Travellers heard the man shouting 'Allahu Akbar', and panic broke out briefly,” the police said on Twitter.
“The man has been arrested and the police are investigating the case. No injuries and no weapons were found.”
Dutch broadcaster NOS quoted police as saying that the man “behaved confused and shouted strange things.”
Dutch railway operator NS was quoted by local media as saying the train, which left Amsterdam at 6:15 am (0515 GMT), continued on its way after a half-hour delay,
In 2015 a Moroccan jihadist armed with guns and a box cutter attacked people on a Thalys from Amsterdam to Paris before being tackled by three Americans on holiday.
The attacker, Ayoub El Khazzani, acted under the orders of Abdelhamid Abaaoud, who later went on to plan the Paris attacks in November 2015, investigators say.