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Italian historian locates WW2 steamer below bed of Po river

The Italian San Giorgio boat had sunk in a storm near the mouth of the Po river in Italy while on patrol duty towards the end of WW2.

Italian historian locates WW2 steamer below bed of Po river
The Po is Italy's longest river. Photo: Zveiger/Depositphotos

It's 54 metres long and eight metres wide but somehow the WW2 steamer had not been found since it sunk in a storm on the night of February 12th 1944. 

The German captain (the ship had been taken over by the German 'Kriegsmarine' after the 1943 Armistice of Cassibile, which stipulated Italy's surrender to the Allies) had attempted to maneuver the ship, to shelter from the storm, towards a lighthouse in Pila where a German squadron was waiting. 

The German soldiers abandoned the vessel but the San Giorgio sunk into oblivion. 

“After the rescue operations of the crew and armaments and the recovery of the coal from the hold, the Germans consented that the fishermen of Pila take from the semi-submerged ship all that was removable, so in a couple of months almost all the core structures disappeared ” Luciano Chiereghin, who made the discovery, explained to local daily Rovigo Oggi. “Only the now bare blanket and the cannon, installed in a pitch above the bridge of the foredeck, remained visible,” he added. 

As local fishermen continued to collide with the boat's cannon in the two decades after the war, they eventually requested it be removed. The port authorities in Chioggia, a seaside town south of Venice, eventually blasted the cannon off the boat.

As the delta and the beach spread in the 1970s, the sunken steamer became obscured. Chiereghin and a team of experts analyzed satellite and aerial thermal images of the delta and have been able to locate the ship's outline below the riverbed near one of the banks of Italy's longest river. 

Subsequent magnetic tests confirmed that the lost steamer is situated three to five metres below the Scana Boa beach in Porto Tolle in the northeastern Italian region of Veneto. 

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HISTORY

‘Lost’ manuscript of pro-Nazi French author published 78 years later

A book by one of France's most celebrated and controversial literary figures arrives in bookstores this week, 78 years after the manuscript disappeared

'Lost' manuscript of pro-Nazi French author published 78 years later

It is a rare thing when the story of a book’s publication is even more mysterious than the plot of the novel itself.

But that might be said of Guerre (War) by one of France’s most celebrated and controversial literary figures, Louis-Ferdinand Celine, which arrives in bookstores on Thursday, some 78 years after its manuscript disappeared.

Celine’s reputation has somehow survived the fact that he was one of France’s most eager collaborators with the Nazis.

Already a superstar thanks to his debut novel Journey to the End of the Night (1932), Celine became one of the most ardent anti-Semitic propagandists even before France’s occupation.

In June 1944, with the Allies advancing on Paris, the writer abandoned a pile of his manuscripts in his Montmartre apartment.

Celine feared rough treatment from authorities in liberated France, having spent the war carousing with the Gestapo, and giving up Jews and foreigners to the Nazi regime and publishing racist pamphlets about Jewish world conspiracies.

For decades, no one knew what happened to his papers, and he accused resistance fighters of burning them. But at some point in the 2000s, they ended up with retired journalist Jean-Pierre Thibaudat, who passed them – completely out of the blue – to Celine’s heirs last summer.

‘A miracle’
Despite the author’s history, reviews of the 150-page novel, published by Gallimard, have been unanimous in their praise.

“The end of a mystery, the discovery of a great text,” writes Le Point; a “miracle,” says Le Monde; “breathtaking,” gushes Journal du Dimanche.

Gallimard has yet to say whether the novel will be translated.

Like much of Celine’s work, Guerre is deeply autobiographical, recounting his experiences during World War I.

It opens with 20-year-old Brigadier Ferdinand finding himself miraculously alive after waking up on a Belgian battlefield, follows his treatment and hasty departure for England – all based on Celine’s real experiences.

His time across the Channel is the subject of another newly discovered novel, Londres (London), to be published this autumn.

If French reviewers seem reluctant to focus on Celine’s rampant World War II anti-Semitism, it is partly because his early writings (Guerre is thought to date from 1934) show little sign of it.

Journey to the End of the Night was a hit among progressives for its anti-war message, as well as a raw, slang-filled style that stuck two fingers up at bourgeois sensibilities.

Celine’s attitude to the Jews only revealed itself in 1937 with the publication of a pamphlet, Trifles for a Massacre, which set him on a new path of racial hatred and conspiracy-mongering.

He never back-tracked. After the war, he launched a campaign of Holocaust-denial and sought to muddy the waters around his own war-time exploits – allowing him to worm his way back into France without repercussions.

‘Divine surprise’
Many in the French literary scene seem keen to separate early and late Celine.

“These manuscripts come at the right time – they are a divine surprise – for Celine to become a writer again: the one who matters, from 1932 to 1936,” literary historian Philippe Roussin told AFP.

Other critics say the early Celine was just hiding his true feelings.

They highlight a quote that may explain the gap between his progressive novels and reactionary feelings: “Knowing what the reader wants, following fashions like a shopgirl, is the job of any writer who is very financially constrained,” Celine wrote to a friend.

Despite his descent into Nazism, he was one of the great chroniclers of the trauma of World War I and the malaise of the inter-war years.

An exhibition about the discovery of the manuscripts opens on Thursday at the Gallimard Gallery and includes the original, hand-written sheets of Guerre.

They end with a line that is typical of Celine: “I caught the war in my head. It is locked in my head.”

In the final years before his death in 1961, Celine endlessly bemoaned the loss of his manuscripts.

The exhibition has a quote from him on the wall: “They burned them, almost three manuscripts, the pest-purging vigilantes!”

This was one occasion – not the only one – where he was proved wrong.

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