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Why an early Italian drawing of a cockatoo rewrites what we know about trade routes

Drawings of an Australasian cockatoo discovered on the pages of a 13th-century Italian manuscript suggest trade Down Under was flourishing as far back as medieval times, researchers said on Tuesday.

Why an early Italian drawing of a cockatoo rewrites what we know about trade routes
A rare manuscript suggests cockatoos have been in Europe longer than we thought. Photo: Guillaume Souvant/AFP

Four images of the white cockatoo feature in the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II of Sicily's De Arte Venandi cum Avibus (The Art of Hunting with Birds), which dates from between 1241 and 1248 and is held in the Vatican Library.

The coloured drawings pre-date by 250 years what was previously believed to be the oldest European depiction of the bird, in Andrea Mantegna's 1496 altarpiece Madonna della Vittoria.

Heather Dalton, an honorary research fellow at Melbourne University, published an article about the cockatoo in Mantegna's painting in 2014, which was seen by three scholars at the Finnish Institute in Rome. They were working on De Arte Venandi cum Avibus and realized they had found much older depictions.


An image from The Art of Hunting with Birds.

A resulting collaboration between Dalton and trio revealed that Frederick's bird was likely to have been either a female Triton or one of three sub-species of Yellow-Crested Cockatoo. This means it originated from Australia's northern tip, New Guinea or the islands off New Guinea or Indonesia.

Essentially, it indicates that trade off Australia's north was taking place much earlier than previously thought, and linked into sea and overland routes to Indonesia, China, Egypt and beyond into Europe, Dalton said.

“Although our part of the world is still considered the very last to have been discovered, this Eurocentric view is increasingly being challenged by finds such as this,” she said.

“Small craft sailed between islands buying and selling fabrics, animal skins and live animals before making for ports in places such as Java, where they sold their wares to Chinese, Arab and Persian merchants.

READ ALSO: Seven places to see wild flamingos in Italy

“The fact that a cockatoo reached Sicily during the 13th century shows that merchants plying their trade to the north of Australia were part of a flourishing network that reached west to the Middle East and beyond.”

According to the National Library of Australia, the first documented landing by a European in the country was in 1606. There are claims of earlier landings by the Portuguese, Spanish, Chinese, Arabs and Romans, but there is little credible evidence.

Dalton said the Latin text next to one of the images revealed that the cockatoo was a gift from the fourth Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt to Frederick II, who referred to him as the 'Sultan of Babylon'.

She pieced together the journey a cockatoo would have taken from Australasia to Cairo and then on to Sicily –which would have been primarily overland and taken several years.

The findings are published in the current edition the Parergon Journal. 

READ ALSO: US returns stolen 'Columbus Letter' to Vatican Library


Photo: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana/AFP
 

HISTORY

‘Lost’ manuscript of pro-Nazi French author published 78 years later

A book by one of France's most celebrated and controversial literary figures arrives in bookstores this week, 78 years after the manuscript disappeared

'Lost' manuscript of pro-Nazi French author published 78 years later

It is a rare thing when the story of a book’s publication is even more mysterious than the plot of the novel itself.

But that might be said of Guerre (War) by one of France’s most celebrated and controversial literary figures, Louis-Ferdinand Celine, which arrives in bookstores on Thursday, some 78 years after its manuscript disappeared.

Celine’s reputation has somehow survived the fact that he was one of France’s most eager collaborators with the Nazis.

Already a superstar thanks to his debut novel Journey to the End of the Night (1932), Celine became one of the most ardent anti-Semitic propagandists even before France’s occupation.

In June 1944, with the Allies advancing on Paris, the writer abandoned a pile of his manuscripts in his Montmartre apartment.

Celine feared rough treatment from authorities in liberated France, having spent the war carousing with the Gestapo, and giving up Jews and foreigners to the Nazi regime and publishing racist pamphlets about Jewish world conspiracies.

For decades, no one knew what happened to his papers, and he accused resistance fighters of burning them. But at some point in the 2000s, they ended up with retired journalist Jean-Pierre Thibaudat, who passed them – completely out of the blue – to Celine’s heirs last summer.

‘A miracle’
Despite the author’s history, reviews of the 150-page novel, published by Gallimard, have been unanimous in their praise.

“The end of a mystery, the discovery of a great text,” writes Le Point; a “miracle,” says Le Monde; “breathtaking,” gushes Journal du Dimanche.

Gallimard has yet to say whether the novel will be translated.

Like much of Celine’s work, Guerre is deeply autobiographical, recounting his experiences during World War I.

It opens with 20-year-old Brigadier Ferdinand finding himself miraculously alive after waking up on a Belgian battlefield, follows his treatment and hasty departure for England – all based on Celine’s real experiences.

His time across the Channel is the subject of another newly discovered novel, Londres (London), to be published this autumn.

If French reviewers seem reluctant to focus on Celine’s rampant World War II anti-Semitism, it is partly because his early writings (Guerre is thought to date from 1934) show little sign of it.

Journey to the End of the Night was a hit among progressives for its anti-war message, as well as a raw, slang-filled style that stuck two fingers up at bourgeois sensibilities.

Celine’s attitude to the Jews only revealed itself in 1937 with the publication of a pamphlet, Trifles for a Massacre, which set him on a new path of racial hatred and conspiracy-mongering.

He never back-tracked. After the war, he launched a campaign of Holocaust-denial and sought to muddy the waters around his own war-time exploits – allowing him to worm his way back into France without repercussions.

‘Divine surprise’
Many in the French literary scene seem keen to separate early and late Celine.

“These manuscripts come at the right time – they are a divine surprise – for Celine to become a writer again: the one who matters, from 1932 to 1936,” literary historian Philippe Roussin told AFP.

Other critics say the early Celine was just hiding his true feelings.

They highlight a quote that may explain the gap between his progressive novels and reactionary feelings: “Knowing what the reader wants, following fashions like a shopgirl, is the job of any writer who is very financially constrained,” Celine wrote to a friend.

Despite his descent into Nazism, he was one of the great chroniclers of the trauma of World War I and the malaise of the inter-war years.

An exhibition about the discovery of the manuscripts opens on Thursday at the Gallimard Gallery and includes the original, hand-written sheets of Guerre.

They end with a line that is typical of Celine: “I caught the war in my head. It is locked in my head.”

In the final years before his death in 1961, Celine endlessly bemoaned the loss of his manuscripts.

The exhibition has a quote from him on the wall: “They burned them, almost three manuscripts, the pest-purging vigilantes!”

This was one occasion – not the only one – where he was proved wrong.

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