Discoveries from 1,400-year-old Norwegian ice surprise scientists

A team of archaeologists who have spent the last decade researching glaciers in Norway have delivered a string of fascinating insights into the Scandinavian country's distant past.

Discoveries from 1,400-year-old Norwegian ice surprise scientists
An archaeologist holds up an arrow, circa 1,400 years old, which was lost in a reindeer hunt in the mountains of Norway’s Oppland County. Photo: Julian Martinsen/ County

Archaeological discoveries from a period known as Fimbulvinter – The Terrible Winter – have helped reveal how people in Norway survived these tough years, writes ScienceNordic.

A fierce cold period struck the Northern Hemisphere in the years from 536 AD to the 660s AD with no real summers. It became known as the Fimbulvinter – The Terrible Winter – and worked its way into Norse folklore.

Ten years ago archaeologists started systematically collecting artefacts that were turning up under Norwegian mountain glacial ice and perennial snow fields that have been frozen for as long as thousands of years. They have been surprised by the finds.

Archaeologist Lars Pilø, a glacial expert in Oppland County, has been involved in this new field of work in Norway from the start. Since 2007, he and his colleagues have conducted field work in the county's glacial areas every summer and collected objects that Norwegians' ancestors have lost or left behind, now turning up in and near the retreating fields of ancient snow and ice.

An ancient trail crossed the mountains at Lendbreen, one of the glaciers where Lars Pilø and colleagues have conducted fieldwork. This was a route between Sognafjord on the West Coast and Eastern Norway.

People travelled between Skjåk and Bøverdalen, with livestock and to summer mountain farms, or simply to get from one place to another. The scientists have found in the area mittens and skis, a horse skull and hiking staffs from the Viking Age.

READ MORE from ScienceNordic: The midnight sun messes with the Arctic charr's inner clock

Over 2,000 artefacts, many used in hunting, have been found in Oppland County alone, including arrows, bows, clothes, horse equipment and horse dung.

Pilø and some of his fellow researchers recently published a research article in the journal Royal Society Open Science, providing a summary of where they have found artefacts and how old 153 of them are.

The researchers used radiocarbon dating to draw a timeline for the artefacts, the most ancient being 6,000 years old. This has given them an idea of the periods in older Norwegian history in which people travelled and hunted in these mountains and perhaps why there was less human activity at these elevations at other times.

Surprising numbers from extremely cold period

They were surprised by what they discovered from layers of snow and ice formed in period of climate change from 536 to about 660 AD, as extensive cold period known as the Late Antique Little Ice Age.

One might expect that traces of human activity high in the mountains would decrease during these decades of colder and harsher climate, as seen in other parts of Norway during this period. These were certainly hard times in Northern Europe and the population plunged. Yet this is not reflected in the quantities of artefacts testifying to hunting and other activities found by Pilø and colleagues in the Oppland County mountains.

The researcher was amazed to see signs of increased activity and thinks it could be the result of people adjusting to the climate as well as they could.

“What we need to remember is that those who lived in the North Gudbrandsdalen region then an up until modern times were not either farmers or hunters. They were both. Additionally, this is a rather marginal region for agriculture, so even small changes in climate tend to have quite an impact here,” Pilø said, speaking to ScienceNordic.

READ MORE from ScienceNordic: Houses reused for over 1000 years during Stone Age

“When people saw their agricultural yields declining, the solution was to hunt more. Maybe this is the readjustment we are seeing traces of now in the artefacts from the ice of that period. A comparable development is found regarding the Norse settlers on Greenland at this time. They started hunting more when the climate got colder.”

A child's practice arrow

The architects also find traces of children's lives among the items from 6th century Norway. They discovered an arrow so small that it must have been used by a child who was also up in the mountains, possibly brought along to learn how the adults hunted reindeer.

The arrow is just 26 centimetres long, and the archaeologists have contacted experts who are sure this was a play arrow.

“It was just for practicing. Hunting must have been a crucial thing for kids to learn in this period,” Pilø said.

He was delighted to find something related to children, as this provides a closer look into the lives of these ancestral Norwegians.

“This was a tough time to live. Perhaps a child was practicing and lost the arrow. The child would have been very unhappy about its disappearance. But it didn't vanish. The ice preserved it for 1,400 years,” he said.

READ MORE from ScienceNordic: Pope said “no thanks” to Norwegian coins

Many finds because of larger glaciers?

University of Tromsø Paleo-ecologist, Per Sjögren, is a specialist in searching for signs of ancient life and has found traces of the so-called Fimbulvinter of the 6th century by analysing changes in the cultural landscape of the Norwegian mountains.

He too is taken aback by Pilø's and fellow researchers' discoveries of increased human activities during the Late Antique Little Ice Age at high altitudes in the 500s and 600s.

“Yes, we know that agricultural activities decreased in the mountain areas, and with a highly probable decline in population and no other evidence, I would have expected all activity in the mountain areas to have been reduced too,” he writes in an e-mail to ScienceNordic's Norwegian partner,

He likes the hypothesis that people relied more on hunting when their crops took a beating because of the cooler climate.

But Sjögren points out that glaciers expanded in this period and this has an effect on where archaeologists find artefacts and how well they are preserved.

Pilø says this is a natural consideration which is taken into account by the research publication.

“We do not see a pattern of more discoveries when the glaciers grow. One of the reasons for this is that most of the findings are from perennial patches of snow, not from glaciers, and these react in their own way to climate variations,” he said.

The researchers from Oppland County, the University of Oslo Museum of Cultural History and the University of Cambridge have attempted to place 153 artefacts on a timeline in their article. Pilø and colleagues explain this more in a video on their Facebook page Secrets of the Ice.

READ MORE from ScienceNordic: Thousand-year-old cathedral surrenders its secrets

Rises and dips

The researchers have also found considerably older items, including an arrow that melted out of the ice layers which has been dated at 3800-4000 BC. After that, there is a long hiatus of nearly 1,600 years where they find no artefacts preserved in the ice.

Prior to 4000 BC, the climate was warmer and there might have been little ice in the Oppland mountain region. Organic items people lost or intentionally left behind would not be preserved.

There is nevertheless a gap from 3800 to 2200 BC. The researchers reason that way up at the highest altitudes there could still be some artefacts from this period trapped in ice, but further down the slopes they could have melted out centuries ago and thus lost.

Then things start turning up again – the researchers found objects from after 300 AD and then from the cold climate period two to three centuries later.

Many artefacts were found from 700-900 AD, just prior to and during the Viking Age.

“This was because of an increase in trade,” says Pilø. Hunting and trapping products, such as hides and antlers, found a market outside the region.

Pilø says that one might expect finds of artefacts from hunting to increase all the more during the Middle Ages, but they don't.

“On the contrary, the quantity of artefact discoveries drops off. We think the reindeer population was almost wiped out during the Middle Ages. People had started using mass trapping techniques which were unsustainable.”

Mixed feelings

In an article in from 2014, Pilø said it was thrilling to find everything from hunting tools to daily life articles like mittens and shoes, bones from horses that died on the trail across the mountains in the distant past. But the sweet discoveries could be said to have a bitter aftertaste in times of concern about global warming.

“The artefacts can give us new knowledge about people who have lived here since the Stone Age. This is undeniably exciting. At the same time, the material is turning up so fast from melting snow and ice that archaeologists need to work as fast as they can to save and conserve them as well as nature has done up until now,” said Pilø to four years ago.

This article was originally published on ScienceNordic

READ ALSO: Who were the first Scandinavians? Ancient DNA sheds light on mysterious origins


Study confirms ancient cave art in southern Spain was created by Neanderthals

Neanderthals, long perceived to have been unsophisticated and brutish, really did paint stalagmites in a Spanish cave more than 60,000 years ago, according to a study published on Monday.

Study confirms ancient cave art in southern Spain was created by Neanderthals
Photo: Joao Zilhao/ICREA/AFP

The issue had roiled the paleoarchaeology community ever since the publication of a 2018 paper attributing red ocher pigment found on the stalagmitic dome of Cueva de Ardales (Malaga province) to our extinct “cousin” species.

The dating suggested the art was at least 64,800 years old, made at a time when modern humans did not inhabit the continent.

But the finding was contentious, and “a scientific article said that perhaps these pigments were a natural thing,” a result of iron oxide flow, Francesco d’Errico, co-author of a new paper in the journal PNAS told AFP.

A new analysis revealed the composition and placement of the pigments were not consistent with natural processes — instead, the pigments were applied through splattering and blowing.


What’s more, their texture did not match natural samples taken from the caves, suggesting the pigments came from an external source.

More detailed dating showed that the pigments were applied at different points in time, separated by more than ten thousand years.This “supports the hypothesis that the Neanderthals came on several occasions, over several thousand years, to mark the cave with pigments,” said d’Errico, of the University of Bordeaux.

It is difficult to compare the Neanderthal “art” to wall paintings made by prehistoric modern humans, such as those found in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc cave of France, more 30,000 years old.

But the new finding adds to increasing evidence that Neanderthals, whose lineage went extinct around 40,000 years ago, were not the boorish relatives of Homo sapiens they were long portrayed to be.

The cave-paintings found in three caves in Spain, one of them in Ardales, are throught to have been created between 43,000 and 65,000 years ago, 20,000 years before modern humans arrived in Europe. (Photo by JORGE GUERRERO / AFP)

The team wrote that the pigments are not “art” in the narrow sense of the word “but rather the result of graphic behaviors intent on perpetuating the symbolic significance of a space.”

The cave formations “played a fundamental role in the symbolic systems of some Neanderthal communities,” though what those symbols meant remains a mystery for now.