Sachenbacher-Stehle won gold medals in cross-country skiing team events at Salt Lake City in 2002 and then again in Vancouver four years ago, before switching to biathlon.
But in Sochi she tested positive for methylhexanamine, a stimulant contained in dietary supplements, following the biathlon mass start in which she finished fourth.
She was sent home from the Games and now her case will be evaluated by the IBU's anti-doping commission in Salzburg, Austria at the end of March.
"We've launched a process and the independent panel will decide the disciplinary consequences," IBU general secretary Nicole Resch told German television station ZDF during the World Cup event in Pokljuka, Slovenia.
"The discussions will be based on the tests in Sochi."
Sachenbacher-Stehle, 33, faces a two-year ban if found guilty of a doping offence.