The man was run over by the taxi in the upscale suburb of Täby, north of Stockholm late Friday night.
The 37-year-old was seriously injured in the incident and was taken to Karolinska University Hospital, where he later died from his injuries.
The 44-year-old driver of the taxi has been detained on suspicions of manslaughter.
According to police, evidence suggests that the 44-year-old ran down the 37-year-old on purpose.
Exactly what lay behind the incident, which took place on Biblioteksgången, remains unclear.
"My assessment is that the suspicions will end up being manslaughter," duty officer Kent Ahola of the Roslag police department told the TT news agency.