Between 50 and 100 mainly young protesters smashed shop windows, vandalized a car and painted graffiti on walls on Hornsgatan in the Södermalm district of the city.
The group, reported by television station SVT to be linked to the Reclaim the Streets movement, were surrounded by police at about 8:50pm after one hour of rioting.
The youths were herded onto buses at Mariatorget and taken to three separate locations in the city, Stockholm police spokesman Joakim Caryll said.
"We will naturally look to see whether we can connect any individuals to the vandalism, but so far nobody has been arrested as far as I know," Caryll said.
A number of those arrested were under 15, police said.
May Day was described as otherwise quiet by Stockholm Police. One person was arrested in Kungsträdgården earlier in the day. He was suspected of assaulting a policeman while trying to break through the barriers protecting an authorized May Day demonstration.
Earlier in the day police received a report of vandalism against the headquarters of the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (Svenskt Näringsliv).